The article presents the results of a survey carried out within the framework of the international project: “The profession of pre-primary teacher and primary teacher within a dynamic concept”. The aim was to identify the activities of teachers working in early education. The primary method of data collection was from the self-reported timing of activities as recorded by teachers. Teachers maintained brief retrospective graphical records of their work-related activities both during and outside their working hours. The study involved 1077 teachers, including 641 teachers of grades 1–3 and 436 preschool teachers in Polish, Czech and Slovak schools. The study was conducted at three stages of the school year. The results highlighted the complexity, diversity, multi-dimensionality and multi-level educational practice of teachers in elementary education. Analysis showed that Polish teachers spent less time on both daily and weekly work-related activities than their Czech and Slovak counterparts.