In this paper math anxiety and its consequences are characterized. Math anxiety is an important factor influencing math achievement. This specific type of anxiety is relatively independent of trait anxiety. When highly math anxious individuals solve math problems, their working memory capacity is restricted and their cognitive inhibition mechanisms are impaired. In the long-term, highly math anxious individuals avoid career pathways related to math. Math anxiety is also related to lower math achievement. Importantly, math anxiety is not equivalent to low math ability. Interventions aimed at reducing math anxiety lead to improvement in math achievement. It is worth noting that pre-service elementary school teachers are characterized by very high math anxiety, which may then be transferred to their pupils.