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The aim of this article is to present the problem of differences in the level of knowledge of 20th century Polish history among students of upper secondary schools. The article begins with a theoretical and methodological context, followed by an analysis of the level of knowledge depending on students’ characteristics. Analyses were conducted according to two-level linear regression models based on data retrieved from a representative (of the population of second year upper secondary school students) survey on attitudes towards 20th century Polish history. Considerable differences were observed in the level of knowledge depending on the type of school and gender. To provide a wider context for the interpretation of these differences, additional factors – such as family, school and individual characteristics (potential interest in history and intensity of attitudes towards history) – were taken into consideration. The control of these additional factors, particularly the intensity of attitudes, reduced the effect of school type and gender, however, they still remained significant.